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Capital as Factor of Production:


Meaning and Definition:


Capital is an important factor of production. It consists of those goods which are produced by the economic system and are used as inputs in the production of further goods and services. Capital may be physical or tangible or intangible. Capital goods yield valuable production services over time.


Physical or Tangible Capital:


The material things which are used as inputs in the production of future goods are called tangible capital. The major categories of tangible capital office buildings, power plants, factories, ware-houses, machines, inventories of inputs, roads, highways, etc.


Intangible Capital:


Intangible capital consists of non material things that contribute to the output of future goods and services. For example, investment by a firm in advertising to establish a brand name, or establishing a training programme for employees to increase their still (human capital) is an input and so included in capital.


Functions of Capital:


Capital occupies an important position in determining the rate of economic development in the country. The main functions of capital, in brief, are as under:


(i) Capital provides equipments which help in the process of economic development.


(ii) An increase in the stock of capital goods like machinery factories, equipments, buildings, economic overhead capital (transport, railroad, communication, etc) and equipment for education, health, shelter etc., enhances the growth of output per capita and consequently the income per capital raised.


(iii) The accumulation of capital makes the labor better equipped and delays the operation of law of diminishing returns in agriculture and industry to a great extent.


(iv) Capital determines the quantity and also the composition of output in the economy.               


(v) Capital puts the economy on the path to development. It results, in technological discoveries.


(vi) The availability of capital helps in the creation of employment opportunities in the country.


(vii) Capital adds value to the products.      


(viii) An increase in the stock of capital once initiated feeds on itself. The process of capital formation thus becomes interacting and cumulative.

Relevant Articles:

Economic Resources
Land as a Factor of Production

Labor as a Factor of Production

Entrepreneur as a Factor of Production
Division of Labor
Mobility of Labor
Capital as Factor of Production
Capital Formation

Capital Market


Principles and Theories of Micro Economics
Definition and Explanation of Economics
Theory of Consumer Behavior
Indifference Curve Analysis of Consumer's Equilibrium
Theory of Demand
Theory of Supply
Elasticity of Demand
Elasticity of Supply
Equilibrium of Demand and Supply
Economic Resources
Scale of Production
Laws of Returns
Production Function
Cost Analysis
Various Revenue Concepts
Price and output Determination Under Perfect Competition
Price and Output Determination Under Monopoly
Price and Output Determination Under Monopolistic/Imperfect Competition
Theory of Factor Pricing OR Theory of Distribution
Principles and Theories of Macro Economics
National Income and Its Measurement
Principles of Public Finance
Public Revenue and Taxation
National Debt and Income Determination
Fiscal Policy
Determinants of the Level of National Income and Employment
Determination of National Income
Theories of Employment
Theory of International Trade
Balance of Payments
Commercial Policy
Development and Planning Economics
Introduction to Development Economics
Features of Developing Countries
Economic Development and Economic Growth
Theories of Under Development
Theories of Economic Growth
Agriculture and Economic Development
Monetary Economics and Public Finance

History of Money

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