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Home Agriculture and Economic Development Causes or Importance of Green Revolution (GR) 

Causes or Importance of Green Revolution (GR):

 

(1) Population Growth: During fifties and early sixties due to population growth the real per capita income and per capita food availability has reduced. When the food production hardly increased while population increased. This has deteriorated the standard of living. Thus to feed extra mouths there was a need to introduce technical progress in agriculture.

 

(2) Agricultural Development: With limited land, fast growing labor force, slow rate of labor utilization and lack of serious policies for enough investment in agriculture by the govts. the food crises rose in some UDCs. Moreover, in LDCs, the heavy emphasis is laid on industrialization for which there is the need for foreign exchange. Hence, they did not have enough foreign exchange for the food imports. Moreover, the natural calamities like droughts etc. often created large troubles for LDCs. Therefore, the govts. of LDCs should think of increasing productivity in agricultural sector. This could be possible by inventing miracle seeds for wheat and rice. The miracle seeds were first used in Mexico and are known as Mexican seeds. The use of these seeds resulted in increasing agri. production much higher than traditional varieties.

 

(3) Double and Multiple Cropping: The invention of new seeds had the effect of increasing the cropic intensity. Earlier in many LDCs the system of double cropping was uncommon. The arrival of new dwarf varieties of seeds will open up the possibility of double and multiple cropping in large scale. This rise in cropic intensity will increase per acre yield substantially. Thus farm income will begin to rise in the areas covered by HYV (High Yielding Veriety) projects. Farmers attitude towards risk will change when their production will go above MCN.

 

(4) Increase in Use of Fertilizers: The other factor which greatly increased the food production and per acre yield is a rise in the use of fertilizers. There exists a positive relationship between fertilizers use and crop response. It has been observed that nitrogen fertilizers along with HYV of wheat and rice have increased the production three times more as compared with the traditional variety. Thus through the effect of fertilizers on yields and increasing multiple cropic the fertilizers play a vital role in promoting GR in LDCs. To increase the use of fertilizers the subsidies have been given to farmers in so many UDCs. But it has been also observed that there exists an inverse relationship between the use of fertilizers and their prices. Despite this problem with GR, fertilizers have played an important role, particularly in raising agri. surplus.

 

(5) Increase in Irrigational Facilities: The other important element which spread GR is the availability of irrigation facilities. The use of fertilizers and other complementary inputs will not give the desirable result if the regular and timely water is not supplied. The case of Punjab in Pakistan where the yield of wheat rose most dramatically because of good irrigation facilities. The average yield from irrigated lands is 30 to 100 % higher than un-irrigated lands. Therefore, in the presence of better irrigational facilities GR can play an important role.

(6) Increase in Agricultural Credit: Because of GR the availability of loans to the farmers becomes possible. Moreover, the farmers are in a position to get consultancy services. They attain storage facilities. Moreover, govts. will also declare clear cut price support policy for the agri. goods. In this way, the uncertainty in the prices of farm products will come down and the incomes of the farmers will be stabilized.

 

(7) Increase in Use of Machinery: The use of machines in agriculture will increase which will have the effect of raising the yield per unit of labor and land. This will increase wages and payments. The domestic production will also increase through mechanization. But the use of tractors is labor displacing. This will depress the real wages and income distribution will become unequal. Thus GR will ultimately result in Red Revolution It is thus important to analyze the relationship between GR and farm income distribution.

 

(8) Unequal Income Distribution: It is the public policy which has played an important role regarding the use of modern technology in agri. sector. The farmers were given subsidies on the use of fertilizers. The duties were reduced or the imports of tractors and agri. machinery and the loans were provided to the farmers at the concessionary rates. Thus these measures helped in providing the complementary inputs at lower prices. But in so many poor countries the peasants are unable to purchase them even at reduced prices. Therefore, it is the class of big land owners and feudals which gets benefits of such public measures. The land lords are in a position to get electricity, loans, superior seeds and irrigational facilities through political links. In this way, their productions and incomes increase, while those of peasants remain low. Thus GR becomes responsible for unequal income distribution.

 

(9) Social Revolution: Because of GR the socio-economic life of villages will change. The education will spread and the life style of the people will change. The death and birth rates will decline. The distances between rural and urban centers will come down. The self-sufficient life of villages will come to an end. The agro-based industries will be set-up.

 

Relevant Articles:

 

Role of Agriculture Sector in Economic Development of a Developing Country
Structure of Third World Agrarian System
Economics of Agricultural Development/Stages of Agricultural Development
Strategy for Agricultural and Rural Development
Economics of Small Scale Agriculture
Economics of Agriculture Specialization
Role of Agriculture in Economic Growth
Agriculture Surplus as a Source of Capital Formation and Economic Development
Surplus Labor as a Source of Capital Formation and Economic Development
Agriculture Sector and Capital Formation in Developing Countries
Land Reforms or Agrarian Reforms
Land Reforms Measures
Effects of Agrarian Reforms
Agrarian Reforms and Economic Development
Green Revolution (GR)
Nature of Green Revolution (GR)
Causes or Importance of Green Revolution (GR)
Effects of Green Revolution (GR) on Income
Problems/Demerits of Green Revolution (GR)
Relationship Between Farm Size and Farm Output with Respect to Productivity
Productivity of Lands
Relationship Between Green Revolution and Size Productivity
 

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History of Money

 

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