"The equilibrium of balance of international payment is a statement that takes into account
the debits and credits of a country on international account during a calendar
When a country has unfavorable or adverse balance of payments, it is
regarded as herald of disaster because the country by having deficit in her
balance of payments either decreases her balances abroad or increases her
foreign debits. When it has favorable credit balance, it is considered that
the country is heading towards prosperity because by having surpluses, it either
increases her foreign credits or reduces her foreign debits.
There is no doubt that a study of country's balance of payment reveals much
information about its economic position and development of the country. But when
we are to see that a country is heading towards financial bankruptcy or higher
standard of living, we are to examine the balance of payments of many years of
A persistent deficit in the balance of payments on current account
certainly leads to economic and financial bankruptcy. A continued favorable
balance on current account is also disadvantageous because it creates
difficulties for other countries. The credit country may utilize her surplus in
advancing short or long term loans to the debtor country. But if it gives no
opportunity to the debtor country to repay the loan by exporting more, then how
can the loans he realized?
The hard earned surplus of the credit country will
then one day be turned into gifts and this may create political difficulties for
the creditor country. We have seen, thus that a country should neither have
unfavorable nor favorable balance of payment on current account in perpetuity.
It must obtain equilibrium in her balance of payments over a reasonable period
of time. From this it may not be concluded that a country should balance her
account every year with every country with which it has trade relations.
A country may have favorable balance of payment with one country and
unfavorable with another
but in the long run it must balance her account. The total liabilities and total
assets of all nations related to one currency block must balance over a
reasonable period of time.
Causes of Disequilibrium in the Balance of Payment:
Balance of international payment is a summary account of total debits and
credits of a country during a year. It includes both visible and invisible
trading terms, i.e., merchandize imported and exported, interest on dividend
received and paid, payments and receipts of transport services, commission,
insurance, brokerage, etc., received and paid money lent abroad or borrowed,
movement of gold, etc., etc.
Disequilibrium in the balance, of payments can
arise due to persistently one sided movement of one or more than one trading
terms. If, for instance, the total value of goods exported exceeds the total
value of the goods imported over a given period and this surplus is not offset
by the debit balance on invisible item, the country will have favorable balance
of payments. Disequilibrium in the balance arises when exports of a country fall
short of imports because of decrease in production at home, due to stiffer
competition abroad or of an appreciation in the currency or fall of purchasing
power of the buyers in the foreign market.
When the imports remain unaffected or
increase, then the country will also face deficit in her balance on invisible
items, the country will have disequilibrium in her balance of payments.
Disequilibrium in her balance of payments can also arise over a given period due
to excessive imports not equalized by exports of invisible items and if it is
not offset by credit balance on visible items, the country will face
disequilibrium in her balance of payments.